2. DIRECTIONAL

+ directional complement (+ le)

Stating in which direction the object has been moved or is anticipated to move.

 

2.1       Zuótiān háizi cóng Běijīng dàilai le.  

  昨天她把孩子从北京带来了。

  She brought her child here from Beijing yesterday.

 

2.2       Qǐng -de zìxíngchē bānchūqu.  

  请把你的自行车搬出去。

  Please move out your bicycle.

 

2.3       yǐzi bāndào lóushàng qu le.  

  他把椅子搬到楼上去了。

  He moved the chair upstairs.

 

2.4       Qǐng Kělè cóng bīngxiāng-li chūlai.  

            请你把可乐从冰箱里拿出来。

            Please take the Coke out of the refrigerator.

 

Note: The coverb cóngwith a locative word or phrase points out the object’s original place before its displacement. The cóng phrase must be placed after the object and before the verb. It is an adverbial. See examples 2.1 and 2.4. Dàowith a locative word or phrase introduces the new location to which the object has been moved. The dào phrase must be placed after the verb. See 2.3. It is a verb complement. The dào phrase must follow the verb immediately. When cóng and dào phrases are used, construction must be used. The following example is ungrammatical.

 

2A.      bān yǐzi dào lóushàng le.

            他搬椅子到楼上去了。

            (He moved the chair upstairs.)

 

To point out the original location of the object, follow this pattern:

 

subj. + + obj. + cóng + locative word/phrase + verb + directional complement + (le)

 

 

To point out the new location to which the object has been moved, follow this pattern:

 

subject++object+verb+dào+locative word/phrase+(lái/)+(le)

 

 

To point out both the original place and the destination, follow this pattern:

 

subject + + object + cóng + locative word/phrase + verb + dào + locative word/phrase + ( lái/)+( le)