B. Verbs of motion taking a simple directional complement

 

Verbs of motion such as shàng, xià, jìn, chū, huí, guò, and frequently take lái and as complements. Table 1 below shows lái and suffixed to verbs of motion to show whether the movement is toward the speaker or away from the speaker. In English, the direction of an action is usually indicated by the verbs ‘come’ and ‘go’, which are represented respectively by the verbs ‘lái’ and ‘’ in Chinese. Note that as complements lái and have neutral tone when they are attached to verbs except for the verb dào.

 

Table 1. Simple Directional Complements

 

verbs of motion

 

 

simple directional

complements

 

shàng

to ascend

 

xià

to descend

 

jìn

to enter

 

chū

to exit

 

huí

to return

 

guó

to cross

 

to rise

 

dào

to reach

 

lái

action proceeding toward the speaker

 

shànglai

come up

 

xiàlai

come down

 

jìnlai

come in(to)

 

chūlai

come out

 

huílai

come back

 

guòlai

come over

 

lai

get up

 

dào ... lái

...

come to

 

action moving away

from where the speaker is

 

shàngqu

go up

 

xiàqu

go down

 

jìnqu

go in(to)

 

chūqu

go out

 

huíqu

go back

 

guòqu

go over

 

 

 

N./A.

 

dào ...

...

go to

 

The examples below show how these compounds are used in sentences:

 

1.1     shànglai上来(to come up)

                                                     Note: The speaker is upstairs. The listener is downstairs.

 

zài lóushàng, qǐng shànglai.  

我在楼上,请你上来。

I’m upstairs. Please come up.

 

1.2     shàngqu上去(to go up)

 

  Note: Both the speaker and the listener are at the foot of the hill.

 

Tīngshuō shān-shang fēngjǐng hěn měi. xiǎng xiǎng shàngqu kàn kan.  

听说山上风景很美。你想不想上去看看?

I  heard that the view on the top of the mountain was beautiful. Would you like to go up to take a look?

 

 

2.1     xiàlai下来(to come down)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are downstairs. The speaker tells the listener that he is going upstairs.

 

zài lóushàng. jiào xiàlai.  

他在楼上。我去叫他下来。

He’s upstairs. I’ll go to tell him to come down.

 

2.2     xiàqu下去(to go down)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are upstairs. The speaker asks the listener to go downstairs.

 

Lóuxià yǒu rén jiào mén. xiàqu kàn kan shì shéi.  

楼下有人叫门。你下去看看是谁。

Someone is knocking on the door. Go down to see who it is.

 

 

3.1     jìnlai进来(to come in)

 

Note: The speaker is inside the house asking the listener to come inside.

 

Wàitou nàme lěng, kuài jìnlai ba.  

外头那么冷,你快进来吧。

It’s so cold outside. Quickly come in.

 

3.2     jìnqu进去(to go in)

 

Note: Both the speaker and the listener are outside the house.

 

Tiānqi tài lěng le. Wǒmen kuài jìnqu ba.  

太冷了,我们快进去吧。

It’s too cold. Let’s quickly go in.

 

 

4.1     chūlai出来(to come out)

 

Note: The speaker is outside the house. The listener is inside.

 

Fángzi-li tài le. kuài chūlai ba.  

房子里太热了,你快出来吧。

It’s too hot in the house. Quickly come out.

 

4.2     chūqu出去(to go out)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are inside the house.

 

Tiānqi zhēn hǎo! Wǒmen chūqu zǒu zou ba.  

天气真好!我们出去走走吧

The weather is really nice! Let’s go out and take a walk.

 

 

5.1     huílai回来(to come back)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are at the same place. The speaker is going to take a short trip. He tells the listener he’ll be back in the evening the next day.

 

míngtiān wǎnshang huílai.  

我明天晚上回来。

I’m coming back tomorrow.

 

5.2     huíqu回去(to go back)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are in Shanghai. The speaker tells the listener that he is returning to Beijing the next day.

 

míngtiān huíqu.  

我明天回去。

I’m going back tomorrow.

 

 

6.1     guòlai过来(to come over)

 

Note: The speaker asks the listener to come over to where he is.

 

Guòlai shì shi zhèi jiàn máoyī.  

过来试试这件毛衣。

Come over here and try this sweater on.

 

6.2     guòqu过去(to go over)

 

Note: The speaker and the listener are not at the lake.

 

Tīngshuō nèibiān yǒu xiǎo . Wǒmen guòqu kàn kan.  

听说那边有一个小湖,我们过去看看。

I heard there’s a small lake over there. Let’s go over there to take a look.

 

 

7.1     lai起来(to rise, to get up)

 

Note: The speaker asks the listener to get out of bed.

 

Yǐjīng diǎn le. Kuài lai ba.  

已经八点了。快起来吧。

It’s already eight o’clock. Get up quickly.

 

 

8.1     dào + place + lái ...... (to come to)

 

Note: The speaker is in Beijing.

 

Huānyíng dào Běijīng lái.  

欢迎你到北京来。

Welcome (you) to Beijing.

 

8.2     dào + place +           ...... (to go to)

 

Note: The speaker is not in France.

 

hěn xiǎng dào Fǎguó .  

我很想到法国去。

I very much want to go to France.