D. The placement of the simple directional complement, the object and le.

 

1. If the verb does not take an object and the action has already been executed, the modal particle le indicating accomplished fact is used at the end of the sentence.

 

 

1.1     yǐjīng huíqu le.  

          他已经回去了。

          He has already gone back.

 

 

1.2     Xiǎo Wáng jìnlai le ma?  

          小王进来了吗?

          Has Young Wang come in yet?

 

 

1.3     Háizi-men dōu lai le.  

          孩子们都起来了。

          The children have all gotten up/out of bed.

 

2. If the object refers to a place, it is usually placed between the verb and the simple directional complement. In such a sentence, if the action has already taken place, the modal particle leis used to indicate that it is an accomplished fact. Leis placed at the end of the sentence.

 

 

verb + place + simple directional complement + (le)

 

 

2.1     huí lǎojiā qu le.  

他回老家去了。

He has returned to his hometown.

 

 

2.2     Xiǎo Wáng zài jiā. jìn chéng qu le.  

          小王不在家。他进城去了。

          Young Wang is not home. He is gone to the city.

 

 

2.3     Qǐng dào lóushàng lái.  

          请你到楼上来。

          Please come upstairs.

 

3. If the object is not a place, it is usually placed after the complement. When the aspect particle –leoccurs in this kind of sentence, it is usually placed immediately after the complement.

 

 

verb + simple directional complement + (-le) + (numerical measure word or other qualifier) + object

 

 

3.1     lái-le liǎng zhāng diànyǐng piào.  

          他拿来了两张电影票。

          He came and gave us two movie tickets.

 

 

3.2     Qǐng gěi dài běn xiǎoshuō.  

          请给他带去几本小说。

          Please bring a few novels over to him.