IX. Verbs as complements

 

Only stative verbs and verbs can be used as resultative complements.

 

Verbs are often used as complements to indicate different resultative aspects of an action, such as wánfinish, jiàn, dào, zháo, liǎo, zhù, dǒng, dòng, kāi, huì, zài, gěi, chéng, zuò, wéi, zǒu, pǎo, , tòu, etc.

 

-wánfinish (can go with many verbs to indicate that someone has finished doing the action)

 

1. kànwán               finish (reading/watching/seeing)

2. shuōwán              finish (speaking/talking)

3. xuéwán                finish (studying)

4. zuòwán                finish (doing)

5. xiěwán                 finish (writing)

etc.

 

Example:    kànwán(kànread + wánfinish) finish reading

 

Zhèi běn shū kànwán le méi yǒu? 

这本书你看完了没有?

Have you finished reading the book?

 

-jiànperceive (jiàn indicates perception)

 

1. kànjiàn                see

2. tīngjiàn               hear

3. pèngjiàn             bump into

4. jiàn                  run into

etc.

 

Example:    kànjiàn (kànlook + jiànperceive) see

 

Zuótiān méi (yǒu) kànjiàn Lǎo Wáng.  

昨天我没()看见老王。

Yesterday I did not see Old Wang.

 

-dào(1). implying that an action has attained the expected aim or result

 

1. kàndào                see

2. tīngdào                hear

3. dào                  run into

4. jiēdào                  receive

5. shōudào              receive

6. zhǎodào              find

7. mǎidào                succeed in buying

etc.

 

Example 1: zhǎodào (zhǎoto look for + dào[attain the expected result]) find

 

zhǎodào Xiānsheng le.  

我找到李先生了。

I have found Mr. Li.

 

Example 2: mǎidào (mǎito buy + dào[attain the expected result]) succeed in buying

 

wǎn le. Méi yǒu mǎidào diànyǐng piào.  

我去晚了。没有买到电影票。

I was late./ I got there late. [So,] I did not manage to get the movie tickets.

 

-dào(2) : reach or arrive at (a place or a point of time)

 

1. zǒudào                walk to /until/up to

2. pǎodào                run to /until/up to

3. xuédào                study until/up to,

4. shuìdào               sleep until/up to

5. mángdào             be busy until/up to

6. kàndào                read or watch until/up to

7. tīngdào                listen until/up to

etc.

 

Example 1: xuédào        (xuéto study + dào until/up to) study until/up to

 

Wǒmen xuédào le.  

我们学到第八课了。

We have studied up to Lesson 8 so far.

 

Example 2:

 

Zuótiān wǎnshang wǒmen xué Zhōngwén xuédào shíyī diǎn.  

昨天晚上我们学中文学到十一点。

We studied Chinese until 11 o’clock last night.

 

-zháoimplying that an action has attained the expected aim or result

 

1. zhǎozháo             find (is the same as zhǎodào找到.)

2. shuìzháo              fall asleep (not the same as 睡到)

etc.

 

Example:    shuìzháo (shuìto sleep + zháo[attain the expected result]) fall asleep

 

Háizi-men dōu shuìzháo le.  

孩子们都睡着了。

The children have all fallen asleep.

 

-zhùhas the meaning of retaining or keeping something at a certain place as the result of the action

 

1. zhù                   remember; learn by heart; bear in mind

2. zhù                  hold in place by hand(s)

etc.

 

Example:    zhù (to remember + zhùretain/keep) learn by heart, bear in mind

 

-de dìzhǐ méi zhù.  

他的地址我没记住。

I did not learn his address by heart.

 

-dǒngunderstand; comprehend

 

1. kàndǒng             understand by reading/looking

2. tīngdǒng              understand by listening

etc.

 

Example:    tīngdǒng (tīngto listen + dǒngunderstand) understand by listening

 

-de huà méi tīngdǒng. Néng néng zài shuō biàn.  

你的话我没听懂。能不能再说一遍?

I did not understand what you said. Can you say it again?

 

-kāito be open as a result of opening

 

1. kāi       打开            to open

2. kāikāi      开开            to open

etc.

 

Example:    kāikāi         (kāito open + kāibeing open) to make ... open

 

Qǐng mén kāikāi.  

请把门开开。

Please open the door.

 

-huìknow how to do something/master a skill through the action

 

xuéhuì                     learn; master

 

Example:    xuéhuì         (xuéto learn + huìknow how to) learn; master

 

xuéhuì kāichē le.  

我学会开车了。

I have learnt how to drive a car.

 

-zàilocated at a place as a result of the action

 

1. fàngzài                put at; to be put at

2. zhùzài                  to live at ...

3. zuòzài                  to sit at

4. zhànzài                stand at

5. xiězài                   write on

6. guàzài                 hang on

etc.

 

Example:    zhànzài (zhànto stand + zàiat) to stand at a place

 

Tiānqi zhème lěng, bié zhànzài wàitou.  

天气这么冷,别站在外头。

It is so cold, don’t stand outside.

 

-gěito (pointing out the recipient)

 

1. sònggěi                to give to

2. gěi                     to send to

3. jiègěi                   to lend to

4. màigěi                 to sell to

etc.

 

Example:    jiègěi (jièto lend + gěi to) to lend to

 

jiègěi běn shū.  

他借给我一本书。

He lent me a book.

 

-chéngbecome; as

 

1. fānyìchéng        翻译        to translate into

2. biànchéng                     to change into

3. kànchéng                       to regard as; to recognize ... mistakenly as ...

4. tīngchéng                      to hear ... mistakenly as ...

5. xiěchéng                        to write ... mistakenly as ...; to adapt...into

etc.

 

Example:    xiěchéng (xiě to write + chéngbecome) to write ... mistakenly as ...; to adapt...into

 

tiānxiěchéng” le.  

我把写成了。

I wrote instead of .

 

-zuò

 

1. kànzuò                 to regard as ...

2. dāngzuò              to regard as ...

etc.

 

Example:    dāngzuòto regard as ...

 

Wáng tàitai dāngzuò zìjǐ-de érzi.   

王太太把我当作自己的儿子。

Mrs. Wang regards me as her own son.

 

-zǒu away

 

1. zǒu                  to take away

2. bānzǒu                to move away

3. sòngzǒu               to see off

4. dàizǒu                 to take away

etc.

 

Example:    bānzǒu (bānto move + zǒu away) to move away

 

Lǎo Zhāng jiā bānzǒu le.  

老张家搬走了。

The Old Zhangs moved away.

 

-death; (exaggeration indicating extreme)

 

1. lèi                     extremely tired; tired to death

2.                       extremely hot; deathly hot

3. è           饿            starving; extremely hungry

etc.

 

Example:    (hot + death) extremely hot

 

Tiānqi le.  

天气热死了。

The weather is extremely hot.